Major Assignment(s)



Intro to Chemistry (Physical Science)


This page is bare-bones for now. In a few months, this page will be updated and my reflection and major assignments will be posted. Stay tuned.


Reflection


In Home Medical Kits: The $20 Urine Metal Test

In home testing has grown rapidly within the last decade for a variety of medical testing. These tests range from the urine pregnancy testing, blood glucose levels, blood A1C, HIV saliva, SG-10 urine perimeter strips and even alcohol testing for breast milk. These in-home tests are not just important for medical diagnosing, they are affordable and offer privacy. However, not all in-home test kits are perfect and the public could be unaware of their hazardous potentials.

Urine heavy metal testing is one of those tests, this test is offered online by various sellers on popular shopping sites. The test can test for Cadmium, Aluminum, Lead, Mercury and Nickel, while another’s seller tests for Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel and Zinc. These tests cost roughly the same, yet they offer no explanation for the reagent used. After digging a little further, the regent used turned out to be Dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone). Naturally, being curious me, I purchased a few samples experiment and play with, of course – knowing the hazards involved. My ultimate goal for this experiment to determine whether or not the elements passed by the kidneys into the urine would test ‘false’ positive. 

In my laboratory at work, I obtained a pallet of sterile urine vials and labeled each with a mixture of distilled water and a ratio of water and common minerals and vitamin supplements found in a gas station (vitamin pack) and others that are not typically found, but used either way.

Using the scientific method, my speculations determined that dithizone would be insoluble in water and that most of these elements would cause a ‘false’ positive of certain minerals and vitamins used. The variables in this experiment are different vitamins and minerals used. The constants are the ratio of water and Dithizone. All elements in group 1 and 2, the cations would interact and bond with the Dithizone, while depending on their polarity and valance election configuration. As for the gases elements in H2O, group 13-18 would also have a similar affect, however there would be an increase for  ‘false’ positive is due to the mixture being mixed with distilled water.

 

In this experiment, 3 columns of vials were used for each experiment. All pills and tablets were crushed and mixed in an aquas solution of 10 mL. These solutions were buffered once more, 0.5 mL of solution and 10mL of H2O. All liquid samples were buffed, first buffering at 0.5mL of solution and 10 mL of water. The first sample row consisted of 1 drop of Dithizone and 1 drop of solution, and no mixing. The second row consisted of 2 drops of Dithizone and 1 drop of solution and 30 seconds of shaking of vials for mixing. The third row consisted of 2 drops of H20, 2 drops of Solution and 6 drops of Dithizone 30 seconds of shaking of vials for mixing.

The results obtained highlight false positive samples. All samples formed an insoluble bubble of liquid. Sample 2 tested the least positive results. Sample 3 had the most ‘false’ positives, while failing to test positive for zinc. H2O as a constant for all samples tested positive and negative. Calcium with a positive 2 cation ion tested positive twice in this experiment.

Colors Consistency at 1/100mL Sample 1 at 10 mins Sample 2 @ 10 min Sample 3 @ 10 min
cal 

500 mg

tablet

pearl white cloudy. sandy. 60% less cloudy. guess. light purple.

POS

clear.

Unclear

hard to tell.

pink. circle. clumps.

POS

zinc

100 mg

tablet

overlay white cloudy, but clearer than cal. Clear. Some vapor. clear

Unclear

light lav. no clump.

POS

light clumps. forms small bubbles and forms back.

Clear

iron

29 mg

capsule

dark green dark. clouDY. SANDy Yellow. Clear yellow

Unclear

light. small and little clumping.

Clear

pink. large clumping. oily.

POS

b12

various

liquid

dark orange dense, difficult to see in high concentration Yellow. Clear yellow

Unclear

light. small clumping. slow

Unclear

darker yelow. small clumping. slow.

Unclear

iodine

12.5 /mL

liquid

Clear Clear clear clear

Unclear

clear. very small dispursening. light rose.

POS

h20 (const) clear clear clear light yellow

Unclear

light purple. small specks turn into purple dots.

POS

clear. many bubles.

Unclear

ammonia phosphate

unknown

liquid

neon yellow clear 5% yellow. clear

Unclear

clear. no bibles form.

Unclear

l. yellow. small buubles. large bubules.

Unclear

 

It is clear that certain elements will trigger ‘false’ positives. However, it must be taken into consideration the mixture of solution, strength and quality. With all qualitative experimentation, there are also limitations, such as viewing samples with subject instead of objectiveness or even viewing the samples incorrectly by user error.

Last notes, knowing this has prompted me to create a video to educate the public on the risks of using in-home testing. This experiment has allowed me to interpret this data, with confidence.